Different Types of Crosses: Meanings and History Explained [43 Types]

Types of Crosses

Embark on a mesmerizing trip through faith and symbolism as we explore the wide variety of Christian cross types. The cross, that powerful icon at the center of Christianity, exists in countless styles and interpretations, each rich with historical and spiritual meaning.

From the globally recognized Latin Cross to the uniquely designed St. Andrew’s and Celtic, each tells a singular story and holds a distinctive role within the Christian tradition. And besides crosses, there are countless other symbols that symbolize the Catholic faith that are no less theologically heavy. Find out more about what these other emblems mean with our exhaustive collection on Catholic Symbols.

This guide throws more light on this different type of crosses and the meaning they carry allow expressing better about the deep spirituality these symbolise. Whether you are a scholar, an ardent Christian, or just a person who is thirsty for knowledge, be with us in this exciting journey as we reveal the stories behind these sacred symbols, shedding light on their history and continued influence to contemporary Christendom.

How many types of crosses are there?

We certainly cannot give an exact number of how many types of crosses that exist, not least because numerous variations and adaptations exist across diverse cultures and Christian denominations. As such, there are around 60 generally recognized types of crosses, all with their unique design, background and attached religious symbolism. In this piece, we explore a number of the most popular and meaningful among these to enhance our knowledge of what distinguishes these inspiring faith symbols apart.

Did you know? The cross symbol dates back to before the religion of Christianity. It had actually represented several ancient civilizations, where each had its very own attributed meaning and importance!

1. Latin Cross

Latin Cross

The Latin Cross, or the Crux Ordinaria, is perhaps the most recognizable symbol in Christianity. Its vertical beam extends down, longer than its horizontal one, resembling the proportions of the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. This powerful emblem encases central Christianity: the sacrifice of Jesus Christ in lieu of these sins of human beings.

  • History: They believed that Latin Cross was made a Christian symbol at very dawning of 4th century A.D. when Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. He had said to have seen a cross of light in the sky before some important battle, as a result, he had decided to adopt it as his military standard.
  • Popularity: This is the cross most popular in representation of Christian faith in uncountable churches, cathedrals, and religious artwork across the world.
  • Shape: In general, the cross of Latin type usually has a very long vertical beam on which there is a shorter but horizontal beam that runs across it at the very top.

2. Greek Cross

Greek Cross

The Greek Cross.
Another potent symbol in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the four equal-lengthed arms taking the idea of the spreading of Christianity to the four corners of the world.

  • History: The Greek Cross is ancient, finding roots in early Byzantine cultures and into the Eastern Orthodox Church, much like how such missionaries of the Church are associated with this.
  • Popularity: The Greek Cross is most popular among Eastern Orthodox Christians who include it as a standard feature in the iconography of the Orthodox Church and its architecture.
  • Shape: This design depicts the Greek Cross symmetry in which there are four arms of equal length if joined together at their ends form a square.

3. Celtic Cross

Celtic Cross

The circle connecting the arms is one of the features that characterize it, blending ancient Celtic symbolism of eternity into the faith of many Christians. The ring of the cross is often viewed to symbolize one or the other of the following – either eternity or even the sun.

  • History: The roots of the Celtic Cross are of Ireland and Britain, from the early medieval time. According to a few folks, it is based on or might have been introduced by none other than Saint Patrick himself while converting then pagan Irish people into Christianity.
  • Popularity: Today, the Celtic Cross symbol still enjoys its popularity especially in countries that have rich origins of Celtic. It is specifically put use on various tombstones, jewelry of different types, and of course artwork either as pieces or part of it.
  • Shape: A Celtic Cross usually features a cross with a circular ring running through the perpendicular center at the midpoint of its arms.

4. St. Andrew’s Cross

Saint Andrew Cross

The St. Andrew’s Cross, or saltire, is an X-shaped cross associated with Saint Andrew, who according to tradition was crucified on an X-shaped cross, or saltire. The Scottish flag is a white field with a St. Andrew’s Cross in bluе.

  • History: The St. Andrew’s Cross was a Christian symbol, by tradition, since at least Middle Ages, though some have surmised plausible use since the early days of Christianity under Constantines, with its continuous history since the 6th century AD.
  • Popularity: The St. Andrew’s Cross is especially very popular in Scotland itself, where it appears on the national flag. It is also largely used in heraldry and features on several national flags other than Scotland – Jamaica and the Confederate flag of the United States being prominent examples.
  • Shape: The St. Andrew’s Cross had a shape that composes two diagonals, which are of the same length and meeting in the middle forming X like shape.

5. Maltese Cross

Maltese Cross

The Maltese Cross, which is a Greek Cross of four V-shaped arms of equal length, has a rich history that is tied to the Knights of Malta or Knights Hospitaller, who were a Christian military order of the Middle Ages.

  • History: The history of Maltese Cross can be traced back to the 16th century when it was associated with Knights of Malta providing medical aid during Crusades.
  • Popularity: Today, Maltese Cross is an international symbol of charity and humanitarian aid and mostly connected with fire and rescue services as well as to the St. John Ambulance organization.
  • Shape: Four shapes that then meet in the centre make The Maltese Cross, same as an arrowhead in shape with each having its sharp end pointing outwards.

6. Cross of St. Peter (The Upside Down Cross)

Cross of St. Peter

Some traditions link this cross to the crucifixion of the Apostle Peter.

The Upside Down Cross is known to be the Cross of St. Peter or rather the Latin Cross that was displayed upside down. According to the Christian tradition, they said that St. Peter had asked for himself to be crucified in this manner when he was martyred because he felt himself unworthy to die in exactly the same manner that Jesus Christ died.

  • History: The origin of this cross goes back to St. Peter’s martyrdom one of Jesus’ apostles, who died crucified in Rome city at the time of Emperor Nero.
  • Popularity: In spite of not being so much a popular symbol in popular Christianity, the Cross of St. Peter is respected quite highly by many Christians as an intense representation of humility and feeling undeserving before Christ. Nevertheless, it is this characteristic that makes this cross unique that has also led to the misinterpretation and usage of the cross with bad intentions against Christianity owing to it being inverted.
  • Shape: In its simplest form, the Cross of St. Peter is a striking device that imitates a Latin cross but upside-down on end flipping the general shape of the cross.

7. Tau Cross (St. Anthony’s Cross)

Tau Cross

The Tau cross has the form of the Christian cross symbol resembling the Greek letter Tau (T). St. Anthony of Egypt, a most eminent of early monastics, is often represented as carrying a Tau Cross.

  • Background: The Tau Cross predates Christianity and was adopted by Christians in at least the 3rd century AD. It were a sign of divine protection, and it often appeared in amulets and talismans.
  • Popularity: Today, the Tau Cross is not very popular but it holds importance as St. Francis had a liking for this symbol everywhere in his Franciscan order.
  • Shape: The Tau Cross is named for the Greek letter “T” since it takes its shape from a vertically oriented line that intersects near its top by a shorter horizonally oriented line.

8. Patriarchal Cross (Archbishop’s Cross)

Archbishop’s Cross

Patriarchal Cross, also referred to as the Archbishop’s Cross or double cross, was actually a variant of the Christian cross consisting of two horizontal bars in addition to the vertical one.

  • History: The double-barred cross first appears in Byzantine art of the 9th century and it became particularly closely associated with the archbishops and patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches.
  • Popularity: The Patriarchal Cross is excessively popular in Europe as well as the Middle East being more famous among Orthodox Catholics and Byzantine.
  • Shape: The Patriarchal Cross bears a shape that resembles Latin Cross except an additional small horizontal line added above the first.

9. Papal Cross

Papal Cross

The Papal Cross is a deftly symbolic cross in Chrisitan religion, which features three decreasing horizontal bars. It is the official insignia of papal jurisdiction during liturgical functions.

  • Origin: The exact origin of the Papal Cross has been obscure; however, it’s been a symbol of the Pope’s ecclesiastical authority and, in addition, his role as Bishop of Rome, and linked to that church by the 13th century at least.
  • Popularity: The Papal Cross is popular mostly amongst the context of the Catholic Church, more commonly during its papal ceremonies as well as in Vatican’s iconography.
  • Shape: The Papal Cross takes a shape of a long beam positioned upright across at a much shorter distance by three horizontal beams that become progressively smaller with each one as it goes up.

10. Cross of Lorraine

The Cross of Lorraine, also referred to as the Patriarchal Cross, is defined as a double-barred form with the shortening of the top bar in relation to the lower one. This cross has great historical and cultural meaning.

  • History: This has been originated from the Eastern Christian traditions and later it transformed into the symbol of Dukes of Lorraine in France. During World War II, this was considered to be the symbol of Free France and the French Resistance.
  • Popular: The Cross of Lorraine is a frequent appearance in heraldic emblems and is quite popular to identify as the French symbol because of its identity of historical connections.
  • Shape: The Cross of Lorraine has a vertical that gets cut through by two horizontal bars whereby the lower one is longer than the upper.

11. Jerusalem Cross

Jerusalem Cross The Jerusalem Cross, or the Crusader’s Cross, contains a large Greek cross and around it four smaller forms. It is one of the emblematic signs to identify the Holy Land.

  • History: The Jerusalem Cross was adopted by the Kingdom of Jerusalem after the First Crusade during the 11th century. It practically symbolized the five wounds of Christ or even the news of Christ spreading to the four corners of the world.
  • Popularity: Today, it is normal that Christians wear the Jerusalem Cross imprinted upon them as a symbol of their Christianity to show their connection to the Holy Land.
  • Shape: The Jerusalem Cross has one large central cross and four smaller crosses, each placed within a quadrant.

12. Canterbury Cross

The Canterbury Cross being four arms of equal length derived from the mother church of the Anglican Communion in which each arm found its widening and ended into a triangular end.

  • Origin: The design of the Canterbury Cross originates from a Saxon brooch that was discovered in Canterbury, in England, dating from the 8th or 9th century.
  • Popularity: The popularity of the Canterbury Cross can be comprehended by the fact that it is considered to be one of the important symbols within the Anglican Communion, and hence is found to be quite common in all sorts of ecclesiastical settings prevailing within the Church of England.
  • Shape: The square-shaped arms of the Canterbury Cross tend to expand into a triangular point with each arm.

13. Coptic Earrings

Coptic Earrings

  The Coptic Cross is best known as a symbol of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, an emblem of strong representative and complexity, figuring a circle generating four equidistant arms with an array of further miniature crosses and characteristics.

  • History: The Coptic Cross signifies God’s eternal and ever-prevailing love as revealed in the crucifixion of Christ. Although the symbol may be of much greater antiquity, this meaning has characterized the central icon of Coptic Christianity from the earliest years of the church.
  • Popularity: The Coptic Cross is one of the popular symbols in the Coptic Orthodox Church, which majority people are Egyptian Christians.
  • Form: Nothing much to differentiate between the Coptic Cross, and the most popular form of this type is a circular ‘nimbus’ intersected by four arms each decorated with three points symbolising the Holy Trinity.

14. Cross Fleury

The Cross Fleury is contemporarily described as a stylized cross bordered with lily-like flourishes at each end signifying the purity, and thus innocence, of all God’s creatures.

  • History: A relevant heraldic cross for sure, more often it has been placed in crests and coats of arms throughout Europe.
  • Popularity: In the modern world, Cross Fleury gained popularity because it is one of the famous crosses in heraldry and Christianity artwork.
  • Shape: The traditional cross shape, but the arms of this cross terminate with a fleur-de-lis or lily-like flourish called fleury.

15. Russian Orthodox Cross

Orthodox Earrings

The Russian Orthodox Cross is also known as the Suppedaneum Cross and it has one additional slanted crossbar at the bottom.

  • History: Rooted in the Byzantine traditions, the Russian Orthodox Cross was welcomed by the Russian Orthodox Church and signifies the faith associated with Eastern Orthodoxy particularly in Russia and countries that are adjacent.
  • Popularity: Currently, the Russian Orthodox Cross has emerged as an important symbol among the Orthodox Christian fraternity and is manifested in the display of this emblem in Russian Orthodox churches and religious artifacts.
  • Shape: The three crossbars of the Russian Orthodox Cross construction the outline of the sign “INRI” (“Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews”) written in Slavonic characters at the top bar and the larger middle bar is the one on which the hands of Christ were nailed while the lower one, slanted footrest, is where his feet were nailed, snaling upward towards the side of the penitent thief and downward towards the side of the impenitent thief.

16. Ankh (Coptic Egyptian Cross)

The Ankh

The Ankh is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic abbreviation known as the Coptic Egyptian Cross or key of life, after adoption by Coptic Christians. The loop at the top is associated with eternal life and the rise of the Sun.

  • History: The roots of the Ankh are traced before when Christianity was born as a sign in ancient Egypt for life, or eternal life. After which, when the early Coptic Christian Church of Egypt came into being, they then adopted it and used it as the symbol of the promise of Christ to his people for unending eternal life.
  • Popularity: The Ankh today is a recognizable ancient Egypt symbol and equally popular between the Coptic Christian communities that it can be found on church icons as well as on jewelry.
  • Shape: The Ankh has a T-shaped cross and has a loop or circle replacing the top bar.

17. Chi Rho Cross

The Chi Rho Cross is one of the earliest forms of christogram, being made out of the first two Greek letters from the word “Christ” – Chi (Χ) and Rho (Ρ).

  • History: After Emperor Constantine I, having seen these letters in a dream with the inscription “In this sign, you shall conquer,” and then gaining victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 AD, the Chi Rho Cross became a considerable symbol of Christianity.
  • Popularity: Though not much in use in the modern times, Chi Rho has an historic significance and at times is applied to liturgical arts and even Catholic heraldry.
  • Shape: The Chi Rho Cross is generally circumscribed by a circle with the superimposed Greek letters Chi (Χ) and Rho (Ρ).
  • 18. Cross of Saint James (Saint James’s Cross)

    The Cross of Saint James, whose other name is Saint James’s Cross, refers to the Apostle Saint James the Greater. It often appears as a cross flory (a cross in which the arms end in fleurs-de-lis) and is central to the Order of Santiago, a Spanish order of knights.

    • Historically: The Cross of Saint James traces back to medieval times and then received greater stature with the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela in Spain where it has been claimed that the relics of the apostle are enshrined.
    • Popularity: The Cross of Saint James is today a popular symbol among pilgrims, people walking the Way of St. James.
    • Shape: Normally, the flory cross in the Cross of Saint James has a four arm which is terminated at the end by fleur-de-lis.

    19. Patee cross

    The Cross Patee displays arms that are pointed towards the center and flaring out towards the ends. In general, the cross is associated with a number of Christian military orders of chivalry such as the Knights Templar, Teutonic Knights.

    • History: The Cross Patee has symbolized many Christian chivalric orders for centuries especially in medieval times.
    • Popularity: The Cross Patee represented, and still represents in various iconology pictorial of military orders or societies, an element of chivalrous identification.
    • Shape: The Cross Patee consists of arms being narrow at the center and broadening towards the perimeter often slightly concave at the edges.

    20. Cross Moline

    The Cross Moline bears the distinction of being shaped much like a millrind, the implement used to operate heritage millstones. It is an hearing and duly found in heraldic and church ornamentation.

    • History: Originating from medieval Europe, the Cross Moline was not only popular among European nobility but also used by renowned religious orders. The design and use of the Cross Moline find its base in heraldic tradition of the Medieval Age.
    • Popularity: In modern days, the Cross Moline still holds a high standing in family emblems and coats of arms especially to families who have Norman descent.
    • Shape: The arms of the Cross Moline are with ends split, this resmbles a millrind on all arm end.

    21. Fylfot Cross (Swastika)

    Sometimes referred to as the Fylfot Cross, the swastika is one of the ancient symbols whose application supersedes the date of Christianity and embraced a cross with varied cultures all over the world. In Christianity, it represented decorative motives.

    • History: The Swastika or Fylfot is an ancient symbol used by many cultures first worked into early Christian and Byzantine art as a symbol of good luck.
    • Popularity: In the 20th century, the symbol became associated with the Nazi Party and has since lost much of its meaning in the Western world. Still, it remains a symbol of cultural and religious significance throughout many Asian cultures today.
    • Shape: The Swastika or Fylfot consists of an equilateral cross with its arms being bent at right angles, usually in a clockwise direction.

    22. Mariner’s Cross (Anchor Cross)

    The former symbol, called the Anchor Cross and also the Mariner’s Cross, is in the shape of a ship’s anchor and signifies hope and steadfastness.

    • History: The history of the Mariner’s Cross can be traced back well to the early Christianity. It was always a symbol common amongst the mariners as well as the seafaring people, symbolizing an idea of safety in returning home or hope through the adaptation of a turbulent sea.
    • Popularity: In modern times, the Mariner’s Cross is today far less common than the ichthys, the Jesus fish, and other Christian symbols that grace nautical-themed tattoos and jewelry. It has gained more appreciation again as a symbol of hope and unwavering faith within Christian tradition.
    • Shape: The Mariner’s Cross is a confluence between the traditional Christian cross as well as the shape of an anchor such that the typical shape of this fusion would be either the letter T or lower-case ‘t’ with a curved top or ringed top.

    23. Tau-Rho Cross (Staurogram)

    The Tau-Rho Cross, or the Staurogram, for it comprises of the Greek letters Tau (Τ) and Rho (Ρ). It is viewed as one of the earliest christograms utilized in manuscripts of Early Christianity.

    • History: The Staurogram’s existence is placed in the 2nd century, in early Christian papyrus texts. The image itself is said to depict the crucifixion, with the Rho representing Christ on the cross.
    • Popularity: Even though today it’s not much popular yet the Tau-Rho Cross holds an important mark even into the academic as well as ecclesiastical background, especially with relevance to the study of the origins and iconography of early Christianity.
    • Shape: The Tau-Rho Cross presents itself as a combination of two Greek letters, Tau (Τ) and Rho (Ρ), by placing the loop of Rho over the vertical bar of the Tau to display Christ’s crucifixion.

    24. The Tetramorph Cross

    The Tetramorph Cross is a unique design of the cross taking on four different creatures which each are symboling a different aspect of Christ as seen through the four Gospels of the New Testament.

    • History: Christian symbolism using the Tetramorph feature reaches back into the early Christian Church and has its beginnings in earlier Middle Eastern and Mediterannean cultures.
    • Popularity: Today the Tetramorph Cross is used in Christian art especially as representations of the four evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) and religious architecture.
    • Shape: The Tetramorph Cross is cross-shaped, usually with four symbols of evangelists on its corners – a winged man or an angel (Matthew), a winged lion (Mark), a winged ox (Luke), and an eagle (John).

    25. Botonee Cross

    Trefoils or buds that appear at the end of each arm, drawing as a symbol of the Holy Trinity, identify the Botonee Cross, also known as the Budded Cross.

    • History: Originally thought to have had origins in, Gothic architecture, the Botonee Cross has been extensively used through Christian art and for ecclesiastical decoration.
    • Popularity: Found in church and appearing through much of Christian iconography, the Botonee Cross is a universally popular cross across sects.
    • Shape: The Botonee Cross maintains the shape of that of a normal cross only that each arm ends up with a design similar to three leafs or trefoil in shape. It also represents the shape of the elements of Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit.

    25. Gamma Cross

    Gamma Earrings

    The Gamma Cross is usually designed with the shape of the Greek letter ‘gamma’. In general, it’s constructed with a long vertical shaft that is crossed towards the top with a shorter horizontal bar.

    • History: The origin of the Gamma Cross is a very complex one and not much can be completely ascertained from it. However, it has been associated with various ancient cultures and religions.
      Its relation was with the gamma symbol used in different contexts to denominate strength or the linkage between life and death.
    • Popularity: In the contemporary time, this means that the Gamma Cross is not popular unlike some other variants of variation of cross forms. Rather, it carries meaning which is significantly more important within a particular cultural or academic sphere — sometimes representing various scientific or mathematical principles because of the affiliation of the form with the Greek letter itself.
    • Shape: Taking from its name, the Gamma Cross follows the shape of a gamma symbol. It is seen to have a longish shaft pointing downwards with a sort of arm that comes across it somewhat on the top part.

    26. Consecration Cross

    The Consecration Cross has become a familiar sight in Christian churches, for it is used at the places where the bishop anointed the church with chrism during its consecration.

    • History: These crosses have been a part of Christian liturgical tradition marking sanctification to a church since the early middle ages.
    • Popularity: Consecration Crosses are quite popularly found within churches that are located throughout the world and thereby serve as evidence towards the sanctimony represented by the building.
    • Form: The Consecration Cross is usually in form of a simple Latin cross, sometimes encircled, inscribed on the interior walls of a church.

    27. Canterbury Cross

    This cross is referred to as ‘Canterbury’ since it was originally made in Canterbury, England. It is designed from a Saxon brooch that was being discovered circa in 1867.

    • History: The Canterbury Cross is one of the most known symbols in the Canterbury Cathedral which was installed since the 9th century as a sign for the Anglican Church.
    • Popularity: The cross is quite popular among the Anglicans across the world and mostly used in jewelry as well as other religious paraphernalia of the Anglican Communion.
    • Shape: The arms of the Canterbury Cross are square with its centre point enlarged and triangular enlargements at the end. Each arm has a triangular panel which bears a design of three triangles pointing downwards.

    28. Cross of Saint Peter (Other Name: Upside Down Cross)

    The Cross of Saint Peter, also called the Clash of the Upside Down Cross or Petrine Cross, represents one of the crosses used in Christian symbolism as the crucifixion of Saint Peter who, according to the tradition, was crucified upside down due to humility in the face of Jesus.

    • History: The symbol dates back to the early Christian Church and is based on the martyrdom of one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, Saint Peter.
    • Popularity: The Cross of Saint Peter has been positioned in many Christian denominations as the symbol of humility and unworthiness in comparison with Christ. However, it served many wrong purposes among some popular culture since it became a symbol of anti-Christianity.
    • Shape: The Cross of Saint Peter is a Latin cross but in an inverted form.

    29. Lorraine Cross

    The Cross of Lorraine, also known as the Lorraine Cross, is a heraldic two-barred cross, which gained wider popularity after having been adopted by the Free French Forces during World War II.

    • History: The Lorraine Cross is credited to the Dukes of Lorraine in France and also with the Kingdom of Hungary way back in the Medieval Ages. Since that point when General Charles de Gaulle made it the symbol of Free France during the Second World War, it has been popular on a worldwide scale.
    • Popularity: Today, the Cross of Lorraine has become a symbol today of France’ resistance movement during WWII in worldwide meanings. It is as well very actively used as a symbol in many organizations, medical associations.
    • Shape: The Lorraine Cross consists of a vertical bar crossed by two horizontal bars of unequal length, the lower one longer than the upper.

    30. Golgotha Cross

    Golgotha Cross

    The Golgotha Cross, on the other hand known as the Crucifixion Cross, is most predominantly symbolized by a plain vertical post with a crossbar fixed at its top, thereby signifying the cross upon which Jesus Christ was killed under Christian belief.

    • History: The Golgotha Cross gets its name from the place believed to be where Jesus Christ was crucified according to Christians’ tradition. It represents a theme of sacrifice and redemption that constitute the central message of Christianity.
    • Symbol of popularity: The Golgotha Cross has been one of the worldwide known symbols in Christianity that was applied really commonly at churches, religious art, and iconography. It had been invented as a symbol for death and resurrection of the central figure Jesus Christ.
    • Shape: The portrayal of the Golgotha Cross usually has a general form of ‘T’ or ‘t’ along with longer vertical post and short horizontal bar located at its upper part. It may be altered in representation, but this given form is most widely connected to the one which might conventionally be called as Crucifixion Cross.

    31. Byzantine Cross

    Byzantine Cross

    The Byzantine Cross, or Eastern Orthodox Cross, or Orthodox Cross is distinguished only by the unique design of having two horizontal bars, the top bar horizontal and indicating the sign INRI (Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum, meaning ‘Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews’) and a second slanted lower bar to represent Christ’s footrest.

    • History: The Byzantine Cross originated in an Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire called the Byzantine Empire, in place from which the Eastern Orthodox Church was born. This has become sort of an emblem of Eastern Orthodox faith and in it are contained some very deep, spiritual, and theological meanings associated with the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ.
    • Popularity: The Byzantine Cross today finds its popularity mostly with the Eastern Orthodox Church and is mostly displayed in its religious artwork, architecture and liturgical objects. It deliberately consists of an iconology that symbolizes the belief of Orthodox Christians on Jesus Christ’s sacrifice and resurrection.
    • Shape: The Byzantine Cross usually bears three bars in general: the topmost as smaller one horizontally signifying the sign INRI, the middle as the main horizontal bar where Christ got nailed on his hands while the bottom one as a slanted bar holding the footrest. This differentiates it from the other forms of Christian crosses.

    32. Cross Crosslet

    Cross Crosslet

    The Cross Crosslet, also popularly known as the Cross Crosslet Fitchée, differs in that its arrangement is really one of a central vertical with a horizontal bar, each end of which is bifurcated to form another smaller crossbar giving the appearance of four small crosses joined at the centre.

    • History: The Cross Crosslet is a most ancient Christian symbol, commonly used in heraldry. It signifies the expansion of Christian influence from its origin into all four corners of the world (north, south, east and west) and the four-fold mystery of the cross.
    • Popularity: Today, the Cross Crosslet is widely present in society, the use of it can be seen in family crests, coat of arms and also in the iconographys of various Christian denominations. Such icons and coat of arms symbolize that he is incumbent on every Christian to adorn his utmost best to spread his faith all over the world.
    • Shape: The Cross Crosslet portrays a central cross with a smaller crossbar at each extremity effectively making up four small crosses. When ‘fitchée’, the lower vertical arm is pointed to indicate the way the cross can be planted in the ground to symbolize it as a processional standard of widespread Christian belief.

    33. Cross of Burgundy

    Burgundy Cross

    Cross of Burgundy, also known by another name for the St. Andrew’s Cross or the Saltire of Burgundy, has been widely known due to its diagonal cross spread in shape like an “X”.

    • History: The history of the Burgundy Cross originally comes from the Duchy of Burgundy — a region in modern-day east France. It had served as the naval ensign of the Duchy and later been adopted as the symbol of the Habsburgs — the ruling patrilineal dynasty of the Spanish Empire. It shows the crucifixion of Saint Andrew who was, according to Christian tradition, actually crucified on an X-shaped cross.
    • Popularity: Today, the Burgundy Cross impressively has maintained associativity with states that used to be under Spanish dominance like that in territories across Italy, the Low Countries, and Latin America. It is popular in flags, emblems, and heraldic iconography especially today.
    • Shape: The Burgundy Cross consists of an “X” shape that forms when two diagonal lines begin from the center intersecting each other. It is one of the symbols for Saint Andrew’s crucifixion and also representing the historic Duchy of Burgundy.

    34. Lithuanian Cross

    Lithuanian Cross

    The Lithuanian Cross additionally, known as the Cross of Vytis or in other viewpoints, the Iron Wolf Cross especially is a standard identifiable cross type which frequently accompanies with the emblazon of the knight on a horseback (Vytis), or an iron wolf from which are national symbols of Lithuania.

    • History: The Lithuanian Cross has its roots in the national history of Lithuania. The symbols conjoined within the cross – Vytis and Iron Wolf – stand, through semiosis at different levels, for some dimensions of the Lithuanian historical storyline with the Iron Wolf traced from legends about origins of Vilnius – the capital city of Lithuania.
    • Popularity: To the present day, the national Lithuanian Cross is probably one of the most popular pieces in Lithuanian national and cultural symbolism. It is maximally popular today from a national celebration to coins and military inscriptions.
    • Shape: It may assume varied shape, but commonly the Lithuanian Cross is always viewed with the usage of a Latin cross at its heart, which is also viewed along with the Vytis or even Iron Wolf portrayed in national costume. These elements add a depth to the cross making it not only religious an icon but also the symbol for national pride as well as history.

    35. Nordic Cross

    Nordic Cross

    The other design group, which falls midway with the off-central arrangement, is the Scandinavian Cross or sometimes called the Nordic Cross, in which point the horizontal bar of the design is closer to the hoist (or to the left view from the front).

    • History: The history of the Nordic countries – Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland – is deeply entwined with the Scandinavian Cross. It was first introduced onto the Danish flag (Dannebrog), one of the world’s oldest national flags, traced back to the 14th century. The cross thus represents Christianity that has been and is still a great contributor into these nation’s history and culture.
    • Popularity : Today, the Scandinavian Cross prominently sees featured in all national flags of Nordic countries, so it is popular and respected in this region and far beyond it. It’s a national symbol that affirms the common heritage and not just the religious significance of Christianity that Nordic countries uphold.
    • Shape: The Scandinavian Cross is off-centered in design. Different from most squares and crosses that are ‘plus’ shaped, the vertical bar of this cross reaches out to the full length of the field while the horizontal bar is adjusted nearer to the hoist. For prominence, it is usually displayed in contrasting colors with the background.

    36. Sun Cross

    Sun Cross

    The Sun Cross, alternatively identified as the Solar Cross or Wheel Cross, is affiliated with an equal-armed cross that is depicted inside a circle. This particular cross symbol has been prominent on behalf of centering on diversified cultures and illustrates symbolism towards the solar calendar or the cycle of the seasons.

    • History: No doubt the Sun Cross is one of the most ancient and common religious signs. Derived to prehistoric era, it has been adapted by many an ancient society as a symbol of celestial, from Europe to Asia, up until being committed to represent the transition between over and under.
    • Popularity: In the modern day, the Sun Cross is mainly used within archaeological, anthropological as well as mythological contexts to describe some of the ancient religions. Usually, it also appears in modern neopagan religions, like Wicca and Heathenry, wherein it very often records the Wheel of the Year and the circulation of the seasons.
    • Shape: The Sun Cross assumes a simple geometrical design of a cross – like equal arm, being enclosed within a circle. It stands to symbolize rotation. Thus, the sun, the four seasons, or rather the cardinal directions – north, south, east, and west.

    37. Templar Cross

    Templar Cross

    The Templar Cross, or the Cross of the Knights Templar, is distinguished by the bright red cross on a white background that is already familiar to all from this religious symbol. In the simplest form it is a simple equilateral cross, but there are also more complex interpretations.

    • Historical: The Templar Cross is one of the medieval Christian military order, Knights Templar, founded in the 12th century. The knights used to wear this symbol on their uniform and flags while going to carry out the Crusades, marking it as a symbol of their faith and dedication towards the protection of the Christian pilgrims going to the Holy Land.
    • Popularity: Nowadays, the Templar Cross still continues to be a very powerful symbol of the Knights Templar that reflects historical, religious and even mythological peculiarities. It is frequently used in historical literature, films, computer games, as well as by numerous contemporary organizations, which affirm having roots from the time of this mythical order.
    • Shape: The Templar Cross is best visualized as an equilateral or slightly elongated cross in red coloration on a white backdrop. It’s simplest to the core and even on a white background of which the red certainly amplifies just about distinctively for any observer.

    38. Basque Cross

    Basque Cross

    Lauburu, also known as Basque Cross or the Four Heads, and is a symbol having four heads looking like commas. It’s referred to as cross though it cannot be reckoned among traditional style which reigns in ordinary crosses but rather uniquely swirled.

    • History: The Basque Cross is the emblem of the traditional Basque Country, a region lying across Spain and France. Though ambiguity floats regarding the exact place from where it had originally come, for centuries it has been an ethnic element from Basque iconography on tombstones and houses with the purpose of warding off the bad spirits.
    • Popularity: The Basque Cross is a recognized symbol of basqueness in the modern day. It is used prolifically drawing expressions of basqueness from traditional dances and ceremonies to contemporary designs and political symbols.
    • Shape: The Basque Cross i.e., Lauburu has four heads of a comma or ‘tear drop’ and arranged into a swirl. The ‘heads’ do not quite meet at their ends in the centre so there is a hole in between in the middle of the cross. It is a unique variety and different from those traditional cross designs.

    39. Bottony Cross

    Bottoni Cross

    The Bottony Cross, also called the Cross Bottony or Cross Botonée because of its trefoil design at the end of each arm looking like both a bud and a button.

    • History: The Bottony Cross has close affinity with heraldry and ecclesiastical use especially from the Middle Ages. The word “bottony” is derived from a French word for button, referring to the bud-like ends of the cross. This cross is often linked to the Trinity due to its trefoil ends.
    • Popularity: Today, Bottony Cross is being used among other applications that include religious iconographs and architectural designs. Gracing most coats of arms carrying historical and religious symbolism.
    • Shape: The Bottony Cross which formed by a trefoil design at the end of each arm which give an impression of a bud or a button. This is used to differentiate this pattern from other forms of the crosses and adds another degree of symbolism, most of the times related to the Christian idea that comprises the Trinity.

    40. Constantine Cross

    Constantine Cross

    The Cross of Constantine, the Chi-Rho Cross, is particularly distinguished through this individual design that consists of superimposing the letters Chi (Χ) and Rho (Ρ) of the Greek alphabet which are the first two letters of the Greek word “ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ” meaning Christ.

    • History: Constantine Cross was so named in honor of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, who saw exactly this sign in a dream before the crucial battle with words “In this sign, you shall conquer.” After his victory, Constantine embraced Christianity and declared it the state religion of the Roman Empire.
    • Popularity: Nowadays, the Cross of Constantine is visualized in iconography today in multiple variations and for different religious branches within Christianity. It keeps being one of the most important symbols reminding of the development of one of the mightiest religions.
    • Form-wise, the Constantine Cross is defined with a superimposition of the Greek letters Chi (Χ) and Rho (Ρ). While some versions see a more abstract read with the letters assuming an almost overlapping appearance, other versions are more graphic in nature and use the literal rendering of the two letters for impact.

    41. Serbian Cross

    Serbian Cross

    The Serbian cross was designed as a variant of the Byzantine cross in serbian heraldry. The four палица, or stylized letter “C”, are located at all four corners against the central cross.

    • History: The Serbian Cross has very strong historical heritage association to Serbia and the Orthodox Christian religion. It represents the Nemanjić dynasty that ruled Serbia during the Middle Ages. Four “C” shapes, or fire steels, are said to depict the Old Serbian saying “Само слога Србина спасава” and translated means “Only Unity Saves the Serbs”.
    • Popularity: Today, a Serbian Cross lies right in the center of the Serbian national emblem and flag. It is widely spread as one of the symbols of Serbian self-awareness and orthodox christening, commonly performed at different religious, national, and cultural events.
    • Shape: The Serbian Cross includes a main cross, typically doubled with a smaller bar extending beyond the longer bar, and firesteels in the four corners of the pendant that resemble “C” shapes or Cyrillic “S” symbols. This design creates an emblem that is easily identifiable as well as is highly regarded for its meaning among Serbs.

    42. Novgorodsky Cross

    Novgorodsky Cross

    A tilted footrest, a smaller crossbar above the main one, and inscriptions make up for the unique complex design of the Novgorodsky Cross – religious iconography.

    • History: Novgorodsky Cross is basically derived from the foundation in traditional Russian city of Novgorod. Its immersions came at the age when Novgorod was asserting itself as a leading cultural and religious center stage. As such, it has great affiliation to Orthodoxy religion and rather provided more or less an essential tool for theological derision and other typical conventional rites and ceremonies as well as parades.
    • Popularity: At the present time, the Novgorodsky Cross is broadly represented in museums, collections, reproductions. It has gained great popularity being a symbol not only of the history of religious and cultural Russia but also that of Novgorod in all its times as an important cenobian city.
    • Form: The Novgorodsky Cross has a complex shape with the small crossbar located above the main one for usually placing the inscription – “King of Glory” and with the slanting footrest symbolizing harmony between good and evil. There are also often covered with inscriptions, religious symbols and images or likenesses of saints to add some additional complexity and depth to this simple cross design.

    43. Grapevine Cross

    Grapevine Cross The Georgian Cross is also known as the Grapevine Cross and Saint Nino’s Cross, where its cross branches hang down like grapevines.

    • History: The Grapevine Cross has always been historically associated with Saint Nino who made the whole kingdom of Georgia convert to the Christian faith in the fourth century. According to popular belief, there was a grapevine at hand, and using that grapevine, Saint Nino had created the cross where he had used some strands of his hair to secure it as well.
    • Today, the Grapevine Cross is a national symbol for Georgia as it found extensive use in the Georgian Orthodox Church and appeared on the national flag. It is a cherished symbol for the Georgians signifying their identity, heritage, and fostering Christian faith.
    • Shape: The grapevine cross is characterized by the drooping arms that resemble those of a grapevine. It is easily recognizable and its trademark could be recorded in contemporary Grapevine Cross portrayals as either detailed or elaborately designed.

    Conclusion, various Christian crosses denote broad ranging symbolism, history, and cultural disparities in meaning within believers of the Christian faith.

    From the universally recognized Latin Cross to the elaborate patterns of the Celtic Cross and the specific symbols of the Knights Templar, each has its own special story and takes its own special place within religious traditions and artistic expression.

    The presence of these crosses is a reminder of the core principles and beliefs of Christianity from devotion, faith, and encouragement for self-reflection that are so awe-inspiring.

    Whether displayed in churches, worn as personalized ornaments or depicted onto artworks, these crosses continue to fascinate and inspire people all over the world attaching them with old tradition and lasting spirituality of the Christian faith.